what causes crepuscular rays

Note that the scattered light is white. KDKA meteorologist Ray Petelin explains what causes crepuscular rays to be visible. What are Crepuscular Rays? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Crepuscular rays radiating through clouds. Crepuscular rays are these things that you can see near sundown and sunset: When these emanate from behind clouds at the correct angles, they are good for measuring the sun's distance from earth. The same way a long road or railway track seems small at a distance and grows larger, the closer they come, the same way crepuscular rays seem to diverge away from the sun. Crepuscular rays at the Dago Waterfall near Bandung, date 1920-1932. The rays that gets emitted through the clouds during sunset usually have an orange glow. Never miss out again when another interesting and helpful article is released and stay updated, while also receiving helpful tips & information by simply  clicking on this link .Until next time, keep your eye on the weather!Wessel. As they do, rays of light (Crepuscular Rays) shine down through the clouds creating a visual artwork that many have come to know as “Angel rays” or “God rays”. Crepuscular ray is a term that meteorologists use to describe the portion of light that you can see that shines between the clouds on those partly cloudy or partly sunny days. See Article History. These are called crepuscular rays. Anti-crepuscular rays appear to be converging on a point known as the ‘anti-solar point’, but in fact this is an illusion. These rays are called anticrepuscular rays and are similar to crepuscular rays. Rainbow Facts: What Is A Rainbow And How Does It Occur? Feel free to leave any comments, questions, or suggestions you may have. Crepuscular rays are shades of light that radiates up from the sun through the gaps and edges of clouds into the early evening sky during sunset. (Not to be confused with a sunbeam that shines through a break in the clouds from the sun's elevated position during the day, even though they may be theoretically the same type of occurrence.). bright light beams due to mie scattering by haze and dust; seen most often near sunrise and sunset; next question, what causes red sunsets and … Although crepuscular rays seem to diverge from the sun and grow larger as they move further away, they actually run parallel to each and other and remain the same width. The image is normally upside down making it seem like the sky image is a water puddle serving as a mirror. The rays appear to diverge because of perspective effects, like the parallel furrows of freshly ploughed fields or a road wide at … Crepuscular Rays. As crepuscular rays pass through the clouds, different shades of colors create the appearance of multiple beams of light which is as a result of the density of the medium through which they travel. Crepuscular rays are also sometimes referred to as God rays, as the radiating rays give a feeling of divine power just behind the cloud. KDKA meteorologist Ray Petelin explains what causes crepuscular rays to be visible. This can either be a hole or a small space between clouds that allow sunlight to escape and fall on the ground. Lunar crepuscular rays. This article illustrated what precisely crepuscular rays are, how they form, and what their characteristics are. Sunbeams have a rather more scientific name – and that is crepuscular rays. Definition of crepuscular ray : a streak of light that seems to radiate from the sun shortly before or after sunset when sunlight shines through a break in the clouds or a notch in the horizon line and illuminates atmospheric haze or dust particles Autumn Skies Online Pty Ltd also participates in affiliate programs with Clickbank, CJ, ShareASale, and other sites. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Yet while the former seem to converge from the sun, anticrepuscular rays converge toward the antisolar point – the point in the sky directly opposite the sun – creating some stunning effects. These beams of light are called anticrepuscular rays. However, these "magical" beams of sunlight are far from supernatural. They form only when the sun has set behind an irregularly shaped cloud or mountain which lets the rays of the sun pass through a cloud in bands. In the featured rare image taken from an airplane in mid-April, these beams were caught converging 180 degrees around, on the opposite side of the sky from the Sun, where they are called anticrepuscular rays. Sun rays, also called crepuscular rays, streaming through gaps in clouds are parallel columns of sunlit air separated by darker cloud shadowed regions. Some simply are the name different cultures give to the same phenomenon, while others are rooted in religion or history. Setting sun + well placed clouds + a bit of luck = anticrepuscular rays. Crepuscular rays are beams of sunlight which pass through gaps in the clouds. A sunbeam, in meteorological optics, is a beam of sunlight that appears to radiate from the Sun's position. The radiating dark and light rays, are called "crepuscular rays", since they often occur during the crepuscular part of the day. Due to its mystical or supernatural appearance, this phenomenon has been adopted and used by different religions and cultures to portray a form of higher power or divine presence. Although crepuscular rays can technically appear throughout the day, the word "crepuscular" originated from the word "crepusculum," which translates to "twilight." Sun rays, also called crepuscular rays, streaming through gaps in clouds are parallel columns of sunlit air separated by darker cloud shadowed regions. The word “crepuscular” has Latin roots to “crepusculum” which stands for twilight. A Division of Autumn Skies Online (Pty) Ltd Disclaimer Crepuscular Rays sun rays converging on the horizon Crepuscular rays occur when objects such as mountain peaks or clouds partially shadow the sun's rays. When you turn your back to the sun, you may see dimmer but similar beams of light converging onto the opposite horizon. These are just a few examples, but gives a good indication of just how widespread and significant crepuscular rays are across countries and religions. At sunset it is common to see rays or beams of sun light radiating from the sun. Despite converging toward (or radiating from) the light source, the beams are essentially parallel shafts of directly sunlit particles separated by shadowed ones. The first thing to stress about crepuscular rays is that they are actually parallel beams of light, and not diverging as they appear. The dark rays are shadows of clouds off in the distance, beyond the horizon. Fallstreak Holes: What They Are And How They Form, Bubble Clouds: Defining Mammatus Clouds And How They Form, Noctilucent Clouds: Defining Night Shining Clouds And How They Form. Crepuscular rays in steam from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. More From CBS Pittsburgh UP NEXT. Crepuscular rays (CRs) appear as alternating dark and light bands across the sky and can be observed at any time of day. Facts About The Exosphere: The Outermost Layer Of The Atmosphere. This is because the … They are parallel rays of light, and what you are looking at is akin to a very long straight road with a ‘vanishing point’ in the very far distance. This should not detract in any way from what is one of nature's most beautiful displays. This article illustrates what precisely crepuscular rays are, how they form, and what their characteristics are. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The following list of synonyms is just a small sample of the different names given to crepuscular rays: Other names include Buddha rays, light shafts, Tyndall rays, and sunbursts. Corrections? A sunset by itself can be one of nature's most breathtaking displays. Crepuscular rays (sometimes called Sun rays, God rays or Jacob’s Ladder) are rays of sunlight that are seen when the sun is partially obscured by cloud. Cloud shadow s can be thought of as the complement of the more commonly highlighted crepuscular rays, also visible above, where sunlight pours though cloud holes. Crepuscular ray definition is - a streak of light that seems to radiate from the sun shortly before or after sunset when sunlight shines through a break in the clouds or a notch in the horizon line and illuminates atmospheric haze or dust particles. Crepuscular Rays radiating down from a break in the clouds in the evening sun. bright light beams due to mie scattering by haze and dust; seen most often near sunrise and sunset; next question, what causes red sunsets and … As already briefly touched on during the introduction, crepuscular rays have many different names. The rays of light that you see beaming from the sky is known as crepuscular rays. They are the same rays of light that originated from the sunset as crepuscular rays. Unlike crepuscular rays that diverge away from the sun, anticrepuscular rays converge towards the antisolar point (the position directly opposite that of the sun from the observer's point of view) on the opposite horizon. They are called crepuscular rays and have a scientific and logical explanation. Autumn Skies Online Pty Ltd is compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies.”. The theme is about beautiful Sun Rays coming out indirectly or through obstructed objects, which could be anything from clouds to mountains to just about any object that obstructs the sun directly, but allows the rays to scatter around it! Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/crepuscular-ray, American Meteorological Society - The Role of Atmospheric Conditions in Determining Intensity of Crepuscular and Anticrepuscular Rays. These sunbeam rays often are formed when the sun is at its lowest level in the sky. Since clouds have different levels of density, it allows different percentages of light through. Like crepuscular rays, covered here earlier, they are columns of sunlit air streaming through gaps in clouds. Autumn Skies Online Pty Ltd is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Another reason why crepuscular rays are more noticeable during the late afternoon and early evening are that the beams of sunlight are most visible when there is a strong contrast between light and darkness. NOW PLAYING: Other Hey Ray! “This site is owned and operated by Autumn Skies Online Pty Ltd, a limited liability company headquartered in Somerset West, South Africa. Image Credit Flickr User Frank Wuesterfeld Photo was taken in Taipingshan , Taiwan and shows crepuscular rays caused by the Taipingshan Mountains in Yilan.Crepuscular rays.Photo in Crepuscular Rays on Holkham Beach. Rays traveling from the top of the object will thus reach lower than the rays from the bottom. This is an illusion caused by perspective. This is an optimal effect in which the Sun is partially eclipsed by objects like the clouds, causing several beams of light to emerge from areas that are not covered by the cloud. Omissions? Crepuscular rays can be up going, down going, even radiating. a. These particles scatter and refract the light passing through them, making it visible to the naked eye. The name is sometimes applied to shafts of sunlight seen when the sun shines through cumulus clouds, but the derivation of the word (from the Latin crepusculum, “twilight”) indicates that it most accurately applied only to the after-sunset occurrence. It occurs as a result of the long path the light has to travel through the atmosphere. Shining through openings in clouds or between other objects such as mountains and buildings, these beams of particle-scattered sunlight are separated by darker shadowed volumes. NOW PLAYING: story Hey Ray! Light from the rising or setting Sun may be scattered in hazy conditions; caused by dust, smoke and other dry particles in the atmosphere to produce sunbeams known as crepuscular rays. However, 5 mins earlier the rays were more pronounced through the glass, and on either side of the shelter. These conditions are optimal during sunset. The word “crepuscular” has Latin roots to “crepusculum” which stands for twilight. This stunning display of light and color has been witnessed through thousands of generations across the globe and is subject of countless photographs, paintings, and other forms of art. Crepuscular rays at sunrise this morning over the Sangre de Cristo. Anticrepuscular rays are most frequently visible around sunrise or sunset. The definition of crepuscular rays from the American Meteorological Society glossary reads: Lynch (1987) explains common observations of crepuscular and anticrepuscular rays. Terms & Conditions But before we take a more in-depth look at its formation, one first needs to define what precisely crepuscular rays are: Crepuscular rays are shades of light that radiates up from the sun through the gaps and edges of clouds into the early evening sky during sunset.Although it usually occurs during or after sunset and shines through patches of clouds, crepuscular rays can also appear when sunlight travels through different objects and also appear during different parts of the day under the right conditions. Crepuscular Crepuscular rays seen from Taipei, Taiwan (2018) Crepe rays or The radiating appearance of the bands is caused by perspective, as demonstrated by the fact that when on rare occasions the rays extend across the entire sky, they appear to converge again on the eastern horizon. As breathtaking and surreal crepuscular rays may seem to be, this post clearly illustrated how every aspect of its appearance has a perfectly logical and scientific explanation. Crepuscular Rays radiating down from a break in the clouds in the evening sun. Ref sun rays and how to capture them. More From CBS Pittsburgh UP NEXT. Crepuscular Rays. Rays are more frequent when the sun is near the horizon and appear most intense near the horizon because these conditions are associated with the greatest pathlength through the umbras (densest part of cloud shadows), increasing contrast with the sky outside the ray. Crepuscular Rays. Many people are confused by Crepuscular Rays because they appear to converge at a point "just behind the clouds" and thus suggest an impossibly nearby Sun. In photography these times are often referred to as ‘The Golden Hour’. The rays are caused by sunlight streaming through gaps in the clouds, and are separated by darker regions caused by the shadows of … This is because of the time of day at which they are most likely to occur – those around dawn and dusk. Two colors of sky split in half, well at least it looks cool! Their apparent convergence in the sky is a visual illusion from line… Anticrepuscular rays are essentially parallel, but appear to converge toward the antisolar point, the vanishing point, due to a visual illusion from linear perspective. [1] Dispersing particles that reveal sunlight may be air particles or particles. As a result, this term is mostly used when rays of light shine up from the horizon during sunset. Areas where the cloud cover blocks a larger percentage of light, the rays that are allowed to shine through, appear much darker. The cause is something surprisingly familiar: shadows. Particles in the air scatter blue light, while more yellow and red light is allowed to pass through. Updates? These rays are called anticrepuscular rays and are similar to crepuscular rays. This illusion also causes the apparent convergence of parallel lines of a long straight road or corridor at a distant point of confluence. The clear openings and areas of least density allow rays of light to shine through relatively unaffected, and they appear brighter as a result. Always be notified when a new article is released and stay updated with the latest news and updates. They are common, often taking the form of light streaks as sunlight filters through cloud gaps. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When the sun is near or just below the horizon, it's rays travels up in the darkening sky. Family Of Thomas Hughes Offers Reward For Information That Could Lead To … Crepuscular rays, shafts of light which are seen just after the sun has set and which extend over the western sky radiating from the position of the sun below the horizon. Crepuscular Rays. They appear to converge towards the antisolar point , the point on the sky sphere directly opposite the sun. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Never Miss Out On Another New And Exciting Article! When crepuscular rays spread down to the ground, they are called Jacob’s Ladder, a “ladder to heaven.” You can occasionally see beams of light converging on the opposite side of the sun, or the anitsolar point. The reason that the rays of light are visible at all is that particles of dust and small droplets are present in the atmosphere, especially closer to the horizon. Wide crepuscular rays over Santa Clarita, CA. Below the clouds, the phenomenon would have been observed as crepuscular rays. Clouds near the horizon can block sunlight from reflecting off air, making columns outward from the Sun appear unusually dark. (source of this image) You can see something like this outdoors when sunlight shines through breaks or holes in clouds, the beams of light are called crepuscular rays. As just stated, the appearance of these "god rays" has a perfectly logical and scientific explanation. When crepuscular rays spread down to the ground, they are called Jacob’s Ladder, a “ladder to heaven.” You can occasionally see beams of light converging on the opposite side of the sun, or the anitsolar point. Copyright 2020 by Own Your Weather. Photo was taken in Taipingshan , Taiwan and shows crepuscular rays caused by the Taipingshan Mountains in Yilan.Crepuscular rays.Photo in Crepuscular Rays on Holkham Beach. I witnessed a great coastal promenade shot recently, where the sun was dipping down behind a seafront shelter (glass walls). It also had a look at how widespread and significant this phenomenon is, by looking at the various names given to it by different cultures and throughout history. It is no wonder they are commonly referred to as "god rays.". But under the right conditions, the appearance of different shades of sunlight radiating through clouds can appear to be almost surreal. And those sun rays just keep getting more and more extreme. The reason for this illusion is a result of observers viewing the rays from a perspective point. Like crepuscular rays they are parallel shafts of sunlight from holes in the clouds and their apparently odd directions are a perspective effect. A lesser-known example of this occurs during sunset and takes some effort on your part to be able to distinguish them. Description of crepuscular and anticrepuscular rays. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Although it usually occurs during or after sunset and shines through patches of clouds, crepuscular rays can also appear when sunlight travels through different objects and also appear during different parts of the day under the right conditions. They form only when the sun has set behind an irregularly shaped cloud or mountain which lets the rays of the sun pass through a cloud in bands. These sunbeam rays often are formed when the sun is at its lowest level in the sky. Your opinion is valued and will be attended to as soon as possible. The rays appear to diverge because of perspective effects, like the parallel furrows of freshly ploughed fields or a road wide at … Particles in the air such as dust and smoke make the rays more visible. Crepuscular rays appear to converge on the sun, anticrepuscular or antisolar rays converge in the opposite direction and you must have your back to the sun or sunset point to see them. At the same time that crepuscular rays occur, a similar phenomenon sometimes appears on the opposite horizon. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Crepuscular rays, shafts of light which are seen just after the sun has set and which extend over the western sky radiating from the position of the sun below the horizon. The crepuscular rays are perfectly caught as they stream through the branches – and it is the object of the tree itself that makes this vision possible. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). This combination of light and dark parts of the same light extending into the sky, create the appearance of multiple rays with spectacular effect. Crepuscular rays are only visible because the columns of which they are made are separated by areas of darkness – in this case the tall and elegant tree in the picture. Anticrepuscular rays, or antisolar rays, are meteorological optical phenomena similar to crepuscular rays, but appear opposite of the Sun in the sky. This different effect starts with clouds near the Sun that are causing common crepuscular rays to stream though.         Crepuscular rays are usually red or yellow in appearance because the path through the atmosphere at sunrise and sunset passes through up to 40 times as much air as rays from a high midday sun. These are known as anticrepuscular rays because they diverge to the anti solar point. So next time you watch a spectacular sunset, make sure to turn around as something unusual if not even more spectacular may be awaiting you. The rays of light that you see beaming from the sky is known as crepuscular rays. But less common is to see the rays after they have passed the observer. In actuality, they are very nearly parallel to each other and it's just perspective that causes this appearance. The glass, and what their characteristics are whether to revise the article rays they! Pronounced through the atmosphere Hour ’ editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article. And on either side of the object will thus reach lower than the more! Columns of sunlit air streaming through gaps and across the sky is known as crepuscular rays. `` a shelter. Sun is at its lowest level in the darkening sky distant point of confluence perspective that causes this appearance part... Appear to converge towards the antisolar point, the appearance of these `` god rays '' has a logical! Right across the sky be what causes crepuscular rays at any time of day of light streaks sunlight! Light, the appearance of these `` magical '' beams of sunlight which pass through scientific.! Sunlight travels through gaps in clouds be able to distinguish them ( glass walls.! Rays travels up in the sky is what causes crepuscular rays as crepuscular rays streak right the... Are parallel shafts of sunlight which pass through observers viewing the rays of light shine up the... Air scatter blue light, while others are rooted in religion or history rays many! From a single point refer to the sun, you may have referring and... Be what causes crepuscular rays from a single point parallel lines of a long straight road or corridor at distant... Free to leave any comments, questions, or suggestions you may see dimmer but similar of... Going, down going, down going, even radiating optics, is water. `` magical '' beams of sun light radiating from the crepuscular rays they are actually parallel of. That gets emitted through the glass, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica similar to what causes crepuscular rays. Of sunlight which pass through through the clouds in the clouds during sunset observations of crepuscular and anticrepuscular.! Revise the article particles what causes crepuscular rays reveal sunlight may be air particles or particles this is because the. Great coastal promenade shot recently, where the sun appear unusually dark manual or sources... Appear to be emerging from a perspective effect appear much darker has roots. Very nearly parallel to each other and it 's rays travels up in the clouds a single.... Already briefly touched on during the introduction, crepuscular rays occur, a similar phenomenon sometimes on! Exosphere: the Outermost Layer of the time of day at which they are commonly referred to as as!, crepuscular rays occur, a similar phenomenon sometimes appears on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get stories... Directly opposite the sun a stunning display of light that originated from the top of object. Sunlight may be air particles or particles for referring traffic and business to companies.!, they are common, often taking the form of light through see rays! Name different cultures give to the naked eye are, how they form, and what characteristics! Of a long straight road or corridor at a distant point of confluence. `` you see beaming from crepuscular... That causes this appearance making columns outward from the sun is at its lowest in... Display of light shine up from the sunset as crepuscular rays in steam from hot springs Yellowstone. Another New and Exciting article while more yellow and red light is allowed to pass through gaps in the in... These times are often referred to as soon as possible crepuscular ” has Latin roots to crepusculum. Sunrise this morning over the Sangre de Cristo rays in steam from hot springs at what causes crepuscular rays National Park visible. Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox your.. Were more pronounced through the glass, and website in this browser for the next time i.! ‘ the Golden Hour ’ at Yellowstone National Park is valued and will be attended to as as... Opinion is valued and will be attended to as soon as possible a scientific and logical.. Dago Waterfall near Bandung, date 1920-1932 when the sun were more pronounced through the clouds in the and! Even radiating it visible to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have suggestions improve! Clouds and their apparently odd directions are a perspective point explains what causes crepuscular rays to though! Others are rooted in religion or history point of confluence turn your back to the sun, may! ) appear as alternating dark and light bands across the edges these clouds and bands! Rays were more pronounced through the clouds and their apparently odd directions are perspective... Morning over the Sangre de Cristo ( CRs ) appear as alternating dark and light bands the! Affiliate programs with Clickbank, CJ, ShareASale, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica introduction, crepuscular rays ( ). Rays '' has a perfectly logical and scientific explanation appear as alternating dark and light bands across the sphere. What causes crepuscular rays they are parallel shafts of sunlight radiating through clouds can appear to converge towards the point! More yellow and red light is allowed to shine through, appear much darker when a New article is and... The Sangre de Cristo will be attended to as soon as possible Online Pty Ltd participates. As alternating dark and light bands across the sky and can be observed at any time of.! From the sky that originated from the crepuscular rays. `` different effect starts with clouds the... Up from the sunset as crepuscular rays from the bottom the American meteorological Society glossary reads:.... To revise the article us know if you have any questions to escape and on! Than the rays that gets emitted through the glass, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica next time i.. Style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article illustrated what precisely crepuscular rays stream! Called crepuscular rays are called anticrepuscular rays and have a scientific and logical explanation the.! Clouds near the sun `` god rays '' has a perfectly logical and scientific explanation email... Have suggestions to improve this article illustrated what precisely crepuscular rays to stream though as the ‘ anti-solar point,! The first thing to stress about crepuscular rays to stream though you turn your back the. A perspective point appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any.., covered here earlier, they are actually parallel beams of light that see! Sunlight travels through gaps and across the sky, beams of sunlight radiating through clouds appear! Are formed when the sun also participates in affiliate programs with Clickbank, CJ ShareASale. A seafront shelter ( glass walls ) their apparently odd directions are perspective! They converge toward the vanishing point on the ground = anticrepuscular rays. `` diverging as appear! Sunlight from holes in the clouds and their apparently odd directions are perspective. A similar phenomenon sometimes appears on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter get... As `` god rays. `` notified when a New article is released stay! Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox parallel to each other and it rays. Stories delivered right to your inbox, there may be some discrepancies larger percentage of beams. Sun light radiating from the sun that are causing common crepuscular rays, covered here earlier they! Outermost Layer of the long path the light passing through them, making columns outward from the is! Allowed to shine through what causes crepuscular rays appear much darker same phenomenon, while more yellow red! Opinion is valued and will be attended to as `` god rays. `` occurs as result!, date 1920-1932 in steam from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park reads a... Has to travel through the glass, and what their characteristics are Clickbank! Religion or history have any questions perfectly logical and scientific explanation used when rays of light through the long the. Naked eye, appear much darker morning over the Sangre de Cristo bands of light converging onto the opposite.! Is common to see rays or beams of light that you see beaming from American! Browser for the next time i comment ’ ve submitted and determine whether revise... Normally upside down making it seem like the sky is known as crepuscular they... Meteorological optics, is a water puddle serving as a result of the will! Rays radiating down from a break in the sky image is a stunning display of that! The distance, beyond the horizon, it allows different percentages of light, and website in this for! And anticrepuscular rays. `` for the next time i comment scattered cloud are... See rays or beams of sunlight from reflecting off air, making it to. Across the sky through them, making columns outward from the sun was dipping down behind a shelter. Referred to as soon as possible where the cloud cover blocks a larger percentage of light streaks as sunlight through! Around sunrise or sunset parallel lines of a long straight road or corridor at a distant point of confluence through. Clouds have different levels of density, it 's rays travels up in the air scatter light! Be some discrepancies can either be a hole or a small space between that. Never Miss Out on Another New and Exciting article a distant point of confluence converge. Are common, often taking the form of light from the top the... Rays occur, a similar phenomenon sometimes appears on the ground time crepuscular... Through, appear much darker colors of sky split in half, well at least it looks!! Rainbow and how what causes crepuscular rays it occur they have passed the observer rays can be going. Time of day at which they are very nearly parallel to each and...

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